Measuring a metre long, the extinct species is twice the size of the modern platypus.
And unlike modern platypus which essentially lack teeth - they bear horny pads in the mouth - the new species has well developed teeth as an adult.
Dr Michael Archer of the University of New South Wales said before the discovery, these fossils suggested that platypuses became smaller and reduced the size of their teeth through time.
"Discovery of this new species was a shock to us because prior to this, the fossil record suggested that the evolutionary tree of platypuses was relatively linear one," he said.
"Now we realise that there were unanticipated side branches on this tree, some of which became gigantic."
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