'Little Ice Age' which froze the River Thames caused by Americas genocide, study finds

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Post by phildidge on Thu Jan 31, 2019 7:52 pm

First topic message reminder :

The “Little Ice Age” of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was triggered by the genocide of indigenous people in the Americas by European settlers, new research shows.

Scientists have long wondered what caused the drop in temperatures so severe it sometimes caused the River Thames to freeze over.

Now, new analysis by University College London (UCL) argues that so many people were slaughtered or died of disease that the amount of agricultural land dramatically reduced, in turn sucking carbon dioxide (CO²) from the atmosphere.

Known as the “Great Dying”, the upheavals following the first contact with Europeans in 1492 is thought to have slashed the population of 60 million living across the Americas down to five or six million within just 100 years.

Published in Quaternary Science Reviews, the study found that much of the land previously cultivated by indigenous civilisations would have fallen into disuse, becoming swallowed up by forest and grassland.

It estimates that an area of 56 million hectares, roughly the size of modern-day France, would have been rewilded in this way.

The scale of the change is believed to have drawn an amount of CO² from the atmosphere equivalent to two years’ fossil fuel emissions at the present rate.


https://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2019/01/31/little-ice-age-cased-thames-freeze-caused-americas-genocide/

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Post by 'Wolfie on Tue Feb 05, 2019 11:02 am

Laughing

Tommy may well "know" what he is posting up on here --  it would be unfortunate indeed, if he didn't have any idea what he's posted  !!!

He is determined, however, to show us all just what a complete know-nothing anti-science moron he is, by continually proving how little he actually understands about the topic..

As clearly shown by the number of times he keeps on embarrassing himself on here.

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Post by Tommy Monk on Tue Feb 05, 2019 1:26 pm

Still nothing from fleakeeper on historical temperatures...


He tells everyone that what I post is rubbish... but he never posts up anything that's any better...!!!


Just throws abuse and runs away!!!


What a twat!!!

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Post by nicko on Tue Feb 05, 2019 2:40 pm

Agreed
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Post by Maddog on Tue Feb 05, 2019 3:54 pm

Thor wrote:
Maddog wrote:

The planet has had numerous ice ages.

No doubt some were bigger than others. Most predate humans.


Where were the ice ages, before and after the mini ice age, that had also many volcanic eruptions, even bigger eruptions.

If your view it is only down to volcanic eruptions, then we would be perpetually in ice ages.

You do realise that?

Hence is it starting to sink in yet?

Scientists already conclude there is multiple factors.

So not sure why you struggle with this


We would have many ice ages if we had eruptions of the same size and scale as we did when the little ice age started in 1315.  

We haven't.

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Post by Maddog on Tue Feb 05, 2019 3:57 pm

Vintage wrote:Thought there was evidence of sudden freezing, in plants and ice cores, caused by volcanic dust in the atmosphere, causing the Arctic  ice to grow past the coast of  Green land and into the north sea, thawing and changing the salinity which in turn disrupts the warming current sending cool water back to the Arctic etc etc
Depends on how many or how large the eruptions were surely.


Nah. It was started in 1315 by Europeans wiping out Native Americsn populations 200 years later.

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Post by phildidge on Tue Feb 05, 2019 7:30 pm

Maddog wrote:
Thor wrote:


Where were the ice ages, before and after the mini ice age, that had also many volcanic eruptions, even bigger eruptions.

If your view it is only down to volcanic eruptions, then we would be perpetually in ice ages.

You do realise that?

Hence is it starting to sink in yet?

Scientists already conclude there is multiple factors.

So not sure why you struggle with this


We would have many ice ages if we had eruptions of the same size and scale as we did when the little ice age started in 1315.  

We haven't.


But can you back that up to say how in one era of a few centuries they were more powerfull and more frequent

You are simple second guessing

When I have demonstrated that there has been far bigger eruptions outside this period

So yesy we have had such eruptions and again its why its simple not down to volcano eruptions that create a mini ice age.

There clearly is other factors

Which othewr scientists have used evidence to back up

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Post by 'Wolfie on Wed Feb 06, 2019 12:46 am

Smile

Maddog shows his biased anti-science ignorance by continually referring to the "mini ice age" as if it was a genuine and proper 'ice age' -- when it simply wasn't an actual ice age to begin with...

And then he compounds his ignorance by claiming there would be many more "ice ages" with more volcanic activity..

Without actually bothering to explain how or why.

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Post by phildidge on Sun Feb 10, 2019 6:10 pm

The destruction of the Indigenous world has been chronicled ever since Bartolomé de las Casas wrote “A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies” in 1552. He even described "more than thirty other islands in the vicinity of San Juan are for the most part and for the same reason depopulated, and the land laid waste. On these islands I estimate there are 2,100 leagues of land that have been ruined and depopulated, empty of people."

Now a new study adds hard data, documenting the global cost of colonialism.

Why does it matter? Because the invasion of the Americas changed everything on the planet. There was a death rate of more than 90 percent of the people, labeled "depopulation" in the scientific report. At that time, the Indigenous population of the Americas was 10 percent of the world's population and the home to the largest and most complex cities.

The study also raises new questions about the “anthropogenic” or the impact of humans on nature and what that might mean for climate change policy in the decades ahead.

The paper: “Earth system impacts of the European arrival and Great Dying in the Americas after 1492,” was written by four geographers from University College London, Alexander Koch, Chris Brierley, Mark M. Maslin and Simon L. Lewis. The peer-reviewed article was published by Quaternary Science Reviews.

The study shows how Europe thrived after the genocide. "The really weird thing is, the depopulation of the Americas may have inadvertently allowed the Europeans to dominate the world," coauthor Mark Maslin told the BBC. "It also allowed for the Industrial Revolution and for Europeans to continue that domination."

“Human impacts prior to the Industrial Revolution are not well constrained,” the authors wrote. “We investigate whether the decline in global atmospheric CO2 concentration by 7 - 10 ppm in the late 1500s and early 1600s which globally lowered surface air temperatures by 0.15 C.”

Even though the global shift in temperature was tiny, only 15/100th of a degree, yet that was enough to lead to colder temperatures worldwide that resulted in crop failures and colder summers.

The researchers examined ice cores from Antarctica which measures the atmospheric gases, including carbon dioxide, that were trapped centuries ago.

The paper explores a big question: Did the invasion and depopulation of the Americas in the 16th and 17th century result in those decline in temperatures, the Little Ice Age? And was that a result of “natural forces” or because of the “large-scale depopulation of the Americas after European arrival, subsequent land use change and secondary succession.”

The evidence is complicated. The Indigenous Americas went through a rapid and dramatic shift; a before contact and after contact story. But the problem is that the evidence was “only documented in the decades after European contact.” So the scientists looked at indirect methods to calculate a hemispheric estimate.

The first problem was trying to figure out how many people lived in the Americas. In Mexico, for example, the Europeans first arrived in 1519 but the first census took place in 1568 and other documentary evidence starts around 1540. That population evidence includes tributes, the size of armies, and settlement infrastructure.

So looking at all of the evidence available today the University College London team came to the conclusion that the Indigenous population reached more than 60 million people before contact. That would have been about 10 percent of the world’s population and the cities in the Americas would have been among the most populous on the planet. In less than a hundred years that Indigenous America’s population was reduced to 5 or 6 million people; a population decline that exceeded 90 percent, the Great Dying.

The scientists calculated how such a rapid population decline would change agriculture (think of what it took to feed 60 million people) and land. This is what happened when farmland became forest and jungle. And the scale of “regrowth” was huge, roughly a land mass twice the size of Colorado.


https://newsmaven.io/indiancountrytoday/news/documenting-colonialism-millions-killed-a-changed-climate-europe-gets-rich-GF4REDdir0-SBj10c_KZTg/

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Post by Tommy Monk on Sun Feb 10, 2019 8:36 pm

Over the last 2000 and 10000 years, there have been warmer times with slightly less co2 and cooler times with higher co2 than those times...


CO2 level has been between around 0.03% and 0.04% of atmosphere for all of this time!!!



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Post by phildidge on Sun Feb 10, 2019 8:59 pm

https://www.pdx.edu/geography-education/sites/www.pdx.edu.geography-education/files/Map53_Atmospheric_CO2_Concentration.pdf

https://climate.nasa.gov/climate_resources/24/graphic-the-relentless-rise-of-carbon-dioxide/

https://www.skepticalscience.com/co2-higher-in-past-intermediate.htm


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Post by phildidge on Sun Feb 10, 2019 9:06 pm


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Post by phildidge on Sun Feb 10, 2019 9:23 pm

James Lovelock is one of the most influential environmental thinkers of our time. Now aged 99, he reflects on the climate change challenge.

https://www.bbc.com/ideas/videos/theres-a-danger-of-losing-our-tenure-on-this-plane/p06yyqvc?playlist=older-and-wiser


Well worth watching

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