Which parts of us are Neanderthal? Our genes point to skin and hair

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Which parts of us are Neanderthal? Our genes point to skin and hair Empty Which parts of us are Neanderthal? Our genes point to skin and hair

Post by Guest on Thu Jan 30, 2014 4:44 am

A double-barreled comparison of ancient Neanderthal DNA with hundreds of modern-day genomes suggests that many of us have Neanderthal skin and hair traits — but other parts of the Neanderthal genome appear to have been bred out of us along the way.

The findings, reported Wednesday by two separate teams of researchers in the journals Science and Nature, follow up on previous studies showing that Neanderthals interbred with humans outside Africa. Even though the Neanderthals went extinct about 30,000 years ago, they left traces of their genetic code in non-African DNA — and now scientists are starting to discover exactly what that code does.

"Our genomes have these amazing stories that we're still learning to how to read, that tell us about our past 50,000 to 100,000 years," University of Washington geneticist Joshua Akey, a co-author of the Science study, told NBC News.

Chris Stringer, an anthropologist at London's Natural History Museum who was not involved in either study, said in an email that the latest findings "provide yet another twist to the hotly debated Neanderthal interbreeding story."

http://www.nbcnews.com/science/which-parts-us-are-neanderthal-our-genes-point-skin-hair-2D12015074

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Post by Vintage on Sat Feb 01, 2014 9:50 am

That's very interesting, so in reality all those decendants of those that left Africa and cross bred with Neanderthals are slightly different to decendants of those who stayed, not that it makes anything but an interesting reading, is it possible then that the Chinese may well be right and they are slightly different also, as there were many different hominoids around including the Denisovians, after all the seemed to have been very successful up until some point living from Siberia to the Pacific islands I believe, did they die out or merge?

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Post by Guest on Sat Feb 01, 2014 11:11 am

Vintage wrote:That's very interesting, so in reality all those decendants of those that left Africa and cross bred with Neanderthals are slightly different to decendants of those who stayed, not that it makes anything but an interesting reading, is it possible then that the Chinese may well be right and they are slightly different also, as there were many different hominoids around including the Denisovians, after all the seemed to have been very successful up until some point living from Siberia to the Pacific islands I believe, did they die out or merge?

Good afternoon Vintage.

So does this explain why some people say that black African people have ape like features? As opposed to other people who do not have ape like features?

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Post by Guest on Sat Feb 01, 2014 12:41 pm

Vintage wrote:That's very interesting, so in reality all those decendants of those that left Africa and cross bred with Neanderthals are slightly different to decendants of those who stayed, not that it makes anything but an interesting reading, is it possible then that the Chinese may well be right and they are slightly different also, as there were many different hominoids around including the Denisovians, after all the seemed to have been very successful up until some point living from Siberia to the Pacific islands I believe, did they die out or merge?


There has always been a percentage of variance between humans, but the variance is so minuscule as we see here is on appearance and also diseases I now here, see below. The points is the variance in any does not affect the working organs of the body and its design. There is more genetic similarity between Europeans and sub-Saharan Africans and between Europeans and Melanesians, inhabitants of islands northeast of Australia, than there is between Africans and Melanesians. Yet, sub-Saharan Africans and Melanesians share dark skin, hair texture and cranial-facial features, traits commonly used to classify people into races. According to Templeton, this example shows that "racial traits" are grossly incompatible with overall genetic differences between human populations.  



The highest level of Neanderthal is actually found in Aborigines, in fact the variance of how much is very different from each ethnic group




Gene types that influence disease in people today were picked up through interbreeding with Neanderthals, a major study in Nature journal suggests.They passed on variants involved in type 2 diabetes, Crohn's disease and - curiously - smoking addiction.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-25944817

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Post by Ben Reilly on Sat Feb 01, 2014 12:47 pm

PhilDidge wrote:
Vintage wrote:That's very interesting, so in reality all those decendants of those that left Africa and cross bred with Neanderthals are slightly different to decendants of those who stayed, not that it makes anything but an interesting reading, is it possible then that the Chinese may well be right and they are slightly different also, as there were many different hominoids around including the Denisovians, after all the seemed to have been very successful up until some point living from Siberia to the Pacific islands I believe, did they die out or merge?


There has always been a percentage of variance between humans, but the variance is so minuscule as we see here is on appearance and also diseases I now here, see below. The points is the variance in any does not affect the working organs of the body and its design. There is more genetic similarity between Europeans and sub-Saharan Africans and between Europeans and Melanesians, inhabitants of islands northeast of Australia, than there is between Africans and Melanesians. Yet, sub-Saharan Africans and Melanesians share dark skin, hair texture and cranial-facial features, traits commonly used to classify people into races. According to Templeton, this example shows that "racial traits" are grossly incompatible with overall genetic differences between human populations.  



The highest level of Neanderthal is actually found in Aborigines, in fact the variance of how much is very different from each ethnic group




Gene types that influence disease in people today were picked up through interbreeding with Neanderthals, a major study in Nature journal suggests.They passed on variants involved in type 2 diabetes, Crohn's disease and - curiously - smoking addiction.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-25944817

Just wanted to add that interestingly, and perhaps counter-intuitively, there is far more human genetic diversity within sub-Saharan Africa today than any other place in the world. That's because so many modern Africans are descended from people who stayed in Africa, living within large populations, while the rest of us are descended from the smaller (and thus less genetically diverse) groups that migrated out.

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Post by Guest on Sat Feb 01, 2014 1:02 pm

Ben_Reilly wrote:
PhilDidge wrote:


There has always been a percentage of variance between humans, but the variance is so minuscule as we see here is on appearance and also diseases I now here, see below. The points is the variance in any does not affect the working organs of the body and its design. There is more genetic similarity between Europeans and sub-Saharan Africans and between Europeans and Melanesians, inhabitants of islands northeast of Australia, than there is between Africans and Melanesians. Yet, sub-Saharan Africans and Melanesians share dark skin, hair texture and cranial-facial features, traits commonly used to classify people into races. According to Templeton, this example shows that "racial traits" are grossly incompatible with overall genetic differences between human populations.  



The highest level of Neanderthal is actually found in Aborigines, in fact the variance of how much is very different from each ethnic group




Gene types that influence disease in people today were picked up through interbreeding with Neanderthals, a major study in Nature journal suggests.They passed on variants involved in type 2 diabetes, Crohn's disease and - curiously - smoking addiction.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-25944817

Just wanted to add that interestingly, and perhaps counter-intuitively, there is far more human genetic diversity within sub-Saharan Africa today than any other place in the world. That's because so many modern Africans are descended from people who stayed in Africa, living within large populations, while the rest of us are descended from the smaller (and thus less genetically diverse) groups that migrated out.

It is interesting an agree Ben, I had read about this also as am very interested in this field, though so much to learn and am no expert.

I do knowfor example where there is one condition found it west Africans and parts of the rest of the world, none are found in Southern Africans

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Post by Vintage on Sat Feb 01, 2014 1:21 pm

The genetic bottle neck - when so many people out of Africa almost died off when the glaciers moved south. A genetisist who's books I've read always said before the link between Neanderthals and our ancestors was confirmed or even really thought of as possible, said his father had some physical features of Neanderthals in body and limb proportion, thinking of it there was a family living near here that had distinct (for now ) brow ridges, and arms that were far longer than average, they also had large noses and low hairlines. The idea of differences is quite exciting - not that one or other is superior or inferior - just different slightly.

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Post by Ben Reilly on Sat Feb 01, 2014 1:43 pm

Another interesting thing about this that I've mentioned before is the likelihood that H. Sapiens borrowed words from the Neanderthal's languages, and that forms of those Neanderthal words survive in modern languages. So cool! :D

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Post by Guest on Sat Feb 01, 2014 2:03 pm

hmmm...If you ask me there's a lot of it still about.....

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Post by Vintage on Sat Feb 01, 2014 2:47 pm

So the question remains, did the various strains that apparently developed after leaving Africa, all eventually merge into modern humans or did modern humans wipe out or help environmental effects to wipe out other strains. We have Neanderthal genes so do we all have genes from other strains as well or only some of us in the eastern parts of Europe have Denisovan genes for instance.

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Post by Guest on Sat Feb 01, 2014 2:57 pm

Excellent question Vintage, as they are now in the belief there maybe DNA from another humanoid, though as seen all these humanoids went down different paths, they are now extinct. The reality is we nearly faced the same as at one point the population of humans was down to less than a thousand, I think partly we were lucky and intelligence, but it shows something drastic happened. As seen we seem to have small traces left in us in which is not what I would call merged as the difference within humans is so negligible. Still though would like to hear what you think may have happened

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Post by Vintage on Sat Feb 01, 2014 3:08 pm

I know scientists are trying to find Denisovan genes, I would find it odd to find that people in Asia don't have these genes, when and if they are identified, as they appear to have been so widespread from Siberia to the Malyasian Islands and beyond. I know the last ice age killed off so many in Europe but if the modern humans moved south and then returned north after the glaciers retreated surely the Denisovans apparently so successful and plentiful would have done the same?

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Post by Guest on Sat Feb 01, 2014 3:18 pm

Thanks you just helped me remember Denisovan and I agree no doubt this could be a possibility also.
The thing is we are talking here about decimated populations of everything and really this was a very relevant point to our existence today being the survival of the fittest. If we are better suited than the other humanoids to the dire changes or able to adapt. Thus we have a point where most species are on the brink of extinction, we pulled through. Sadly though other animals or humanoids may have found it impossible to adapt with being able to survive! You could have seen humanoids fighting each other for food resources. Who knows but it would be interesting to find this out!


It should also be a lesson for the future, where we are not left in an environment which we be unable to adapt to

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Post by Vintage on Sat Feb 01, 2014 4:03 pm

Sometimes when I think about the possibilities for life in this universe other than our own, given the numbers of stars and the possibilty of planets orbiting at least a few which still makes a huge number of livable planets and that scientists believe life would evolve along similar lines given the building blocks seem to be available throughout the universe - I can't help but consider whether humanoid life on earth only evolved in Africa, surely the conditions must have been right in a number of places throughout the planet?

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Post by Guest on Sat Feb 01, 2014 4:14 pm

Has every possibility with the same conditions for the planet, though in reality unless they are an exact copy of the earth, its distance to the sun, water and land density, weather, has a moon etc would life evolving be different even if the plants were similar, so many precise factors played a part in our evolution. I guess we look at life forms as we do as they are on earth, who is to say what alien life will look like. It is fascinating though.


To be honest Vintage, who is to say they were not here many years ago already and I think you can guess what I mean by that, which would answer your view point on alien humanoids.

Right am

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Post by veya_victaous on Sat Feb 01, 2014 9:30 pm

Vintage wrote:So the question remains, did the various strains that apparently developed after leaving Africa, all eventually merge into modern humans or did modern humans wipe out or help environmental effects to wipe out other strains. We have Neanderthal genes so do we all have genes from other strains as well or only some of us in the eastern parts of Europe have Denisovan genes for instance.

ALL Genetically modern humans all came out of Africa

Homo Erectus (ancestor of Homo Sapiens) Migrated out of Africa earlier and evolved in to the Neanderthals and Denisovans (and probably many others as well)  The Homo Erectus that remained in Africa Evolved into Homo Sapiens (modern humans). Recently there have been suggestions of Crossbreeding and a slower process of being breed out, as opposed to straight up extinction

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